### Our Services

Get 15% Discount on your First Order

# DISCUSSION RESPONSE MEASURES USED IN EPIDEMIOLOGY DUE MARCH 28 MEASURES USED IN EPIDEMIOLOGY Respond to

DISCUSSION RESPONSE

MEASURES USED IN EPIDEMIOLOGY

DUE MARCH 28

MEASURES USED IN EPIDEMIOLOGY

Respond to
two colleagues  in one or more of the following ways:

· Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence or research.

· Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.

· Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.

· Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.

· Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

PEER #1

Initial Post

Odds Ratio and Risk Ratio

Confusing odds ratio (OR) and risk ratio (RR) are common, and the terms are sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably (Labrecque et al., 2021). The findings from the odds and risk ratios are presented in the same way, leading to misunderstandings in interpretation. To add to the confusion, if the outcome is rare, the results of OR and RR are very similar. However, they do not provide the same analysis and cannot be used interchangeably (Norton et al., 2018).

Odds Ratio

The odds ratio determines if an exposure is protective or causative but does not determine risk (Curley, 2020). OR is not a predictor of the outcome but instead calculates the probability of an outcome in a stated population by dividing the occurrence number by the non-event number (Chatterjee et al., 2021) (Norton et al., 2018). Odds ratios are notorious for misinterpretation and should only be used in case-control studies (Labrecque et al., 2021). However, when used correctly, results greater than 1 point to the dependent variable connecting to the outcome (Curley, 2020).

Risk Ratio

The risk ratio determines the benefits or risks of exposure in cohort studies (Curley, 2020). RR tells us how likely the result is depending on exposure. It answers the question
of how many times higher/lower the outcome’s risk depends on exposure. The risk ratio calculates the chance of it happening for the group by dividing the incident number by the total group population (Norton et al., 2018). Greater than one means there is an increased risk between exposure and disease. Less than one means benefits may increase from exposure.

Strengthen and Support Nursing Practice

Depending on the study, the odds ratio and risk ratio support nursing practice by ensuring the data collected is applicable to support best practice. The odds ratio is calculated in case-control studies; the risk ratio is calculated through cohort studies. Evidence-based practice must have confirmation of the benefit of the intervention (Schloemer et al., 2021). OR and RR provide information to help clinicians make informed decisions (Pantaleon, 2019). Health promotion and prevention programs also need accurate data to support recommendations and policies (Schloemer et al., 2021). Statistics influence program funding and implementation.

Limitations of not Using Measures of Effect

While OR and RR have limitations, the absence of data restricts nursing practice (Su, 2021). Odds ratios may overestimate risk and cannot be used to compare the results of different studies because of the arbitrary nature of the variables (Norton et al., 2018). The risk ratio is easily understood, but without accurate primary data, RR can identify correlations where there are none (Dattani, 2023). Despite limitations, statistics and measures of effect must be used to ensure interventions have scientific backing. Arbitrary policies and recommendations confuse the public and ensure chaos and noncompliance ensue (Su, 2021).

References

Chatterjee, A., Woodruff, H., Wu, G., & Lambin, P. (2021). Limitations of only reporting the odds ratio in the age of precision medicine: A deterministic simulation study.
Frontiers in Medicine, 8

to an external site.

Curley, A. L. C. (Ed.). (2020).
Population-based nursing: Concepts and competencies for advanced practice (3rd ed.). Springer.

Dattani, S. (2023). Risk ratios, odds ratios, risk differences: How do researchers calculate the risk from a risk factor?
Our World in Data.

to an external site.

Labrecque, J. A., Hunink, M. M. G., Ikram, M. A., & Ikram, M. K. (2021). Do case-control studies always estimate odds ratios?
American Journal of Epidemiology
190(2), 318–321.

to an external site.

Norton, E. C., Dowd, B. E., & Maciejewski, M. L. (2018). Odds ratios–Current best practice and use.
JAMA, 320(1), 84-85.

to an external site.

Schloemer, T., Bock, F., Schroder-Back, P. (2021). Implementation of evidence-based health promotion and disease prevention interventions: theoretical and practical implications of the concept of transferability for decision-making and the transfer process.
Springer, 64(5), 534-543.

to an external site.

Su, Z. (2021). Rigorous policy-making amid COVID-19 and beyond: Literature review and critical insights.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(23).

to an external site.

·

PEER #2

Epidemiologic Measures in Population Health

Mortality and morbidity

In caring for the homeless population mortality and morbidity measures play a crucial role in strengthening nursing practice, particularly in the context of caring for homeless individuals. Here’s how these epidemiological measures can support homeless healthcare and the limitations of not using them.

Support Nurse Practice:

Targeted Intervention: Understanding mortality and morbidity in my practice of homeless individuals, allows the practice to identify health issues and tailor interventions accordingly. For instance, in my role as a Nurse Practitioner (NP) working with the homeless population, leveraging such epidemiological measures enables me to identify prevalent health issues and tailor interventions accordingly.

For instance, drawing insights from the study “Mortality, Morbidity, and Health in Developed Societies: a Review of Data Sources” by Wunsch et al. (2018), if morbidity measures reveal a high prevalence of chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) among homeless individuals, I can prioritize screening, medication education, and treatment options accordingly. This proactive approach not only addresses immediate health needs but also contributes to preventive care and overall health promotion among this vulnerable population.

Limitations of Not Using Measures of Effect:

Neglecting to utilize measures of effect in nursing practice presents significant limitations, particularly in terms of missed opportunities for prevention and intervention. For example, mortality and morbidity data are vital for identifying health risks, trends, and opportunities for early prevention and intervention.

For instance, drawing insights from the study “Quality Improvement Focused Morbidity and Mortality Rounds: An Integrative Review” by Churchill et al. (2020), the absence of mortality and morbidity data can lead NPs to overlook critical health trends and patterns. This oversight may result in delayed diagnosis or disease progression, ultimately compromising patient outcomes and exacerbating healthcare disparities

Examples from Scholarly Literature:

2. The article “Mortality, Morbidity, and Health in Developed Societies: a Review of Data Sources” by Wunsch et al. (2018) is an example of how the mortality and morbidity data strengthen homeless intervention practices by providing insight into chronic disease among homeless individuals.

2. The article “Quality Improvement Focused Morbidity and Mortality Rounds: An Integrative Review” by Churchill et al. (2020) is another example of the limitations of not using  measures of effect can negatively impact promotion and engagement in quality improvement (QI) and patient safety,

References

Churchill, K. P., Murphy, J., & Smith, N. (2020). Quality improvement focused morbidity and mortality                       rounds: An integrative review.
Cureus

to an external site.

Curley, A. L., Ed. (2020). Measures of Morbidity and Mortality Used in Epidemiology. In
Population-based                nursing, third edition: Concepts and competencies for advanced practice (3rd ed., pp. 91–131). Springer Publishing Company.

Wunsch, G., & Gourbin, C. (2018). Mortality, morbidity, and health in developed societies: A review of                    data sources.
Genus
74(1).

to an external site.

Order a Similar Paper and get 15% Discount on your First Order

## Related Questions

### Discussion    ERADICATION OF SMALLPOX, POLIO, AND COVID-19 Epidemiology WEEK 9: AT A

Discussion    ERADICATION OF SMALLPOX, POLIO, AND COVID-19 Epidemiology WEEK 9: AT A GLANCE  INFECTIOUS DISEASE FROM AN EPIDEMIOLOGIC PERSPECTIVE INTRODUCTION The scope of epidemiology has broadened over the years to include the global investigation of chronic, environmental, and genetic diseases and other health-related conditions. Yet, the practice of epidemiology

### Discussion ETHICS, CYBER ETHICS, AND SECURITY This file is too large to display.View in new window

Discussion ETHICS, CYBER ETHICS, AND SECURITY This file is too large to display.View in new window

### The nursing process is a tool that puts knowledge into practice. By utilizing this systematic problem-solving method, nurses can determine the health

The nursing process is a tool that puts knowledge into practice. By utilizing this systematic problem-solving method, nurses can determine the health care needs of an individual and provide personalized care.

### This week you will discuss nutritional needs for cardiovascular health, stress response, immunity, and renal health. Post your answer to 1 of the 3

This week you will discuss nutritional needs for cardiovascular health, stress response, immunity, and renal health. Post your answer to 1 of the 3 questions with explanation and details. Please follow the guidelines for participating in the Community Café.

### please see attachment Women’s rights and abortion go back to the early days of America. Please read the attached document below

please see attachment Women’s rights and abortion go back to the early days of America. Please read the attached document below concerning the details of that history. The U. S. Supreme Court recently overturned a previous ruling that allowed abortion. This ruling was in place for fifty years, and its

### Instructions  CASE STUDY 24.1: A NURSE’S STORY: PHOPHO SURVIVED HIV/AIDS IN THE KINGDOM OF ESWATINI  Case

Instructions  CASE STUDY 24.1: A NURSE’S STORY: PHOPHO SURVIVED HIV/AIDS IN THE KINGDOM OF ESWATINI  Case Study I was diagnosed with HIV in 1990 when the disease was rampant, and people were frightened and dying. The annual death rate was about 348,600 internationally, and in Eswatini, it was around 7,000 deaths

### Recreational Therapy and Evidence-Based Practice Assignment Step 1 Formulate a clear clinical research question:    A. Propose

Recreational Therapy and Evidence-Based Practice Assignment Step 1 Formulate a clear clinical research question:    A. Propose a PICO question/idea. B. Identify the search terms. You should have at least 3 terms for each category. For example, for the population category you might use older adult (as term 1), geriatric

### Follow all directions . this is a compilation of all the projects  For this Assignment, you will submit your Immersion Project Paper, one of two

Follow all directions . this is a compilation of all the projects  For this Assignment, you will submit your Immersion Project Paper, one of two culminating parts of your final project for this course (along with your narrated PowerPoint presentation, which is due in Week 9). This paper is a

### Complete the following within the Practicing Digital Fluencytemplate then upload to Waypoint for grading.

Complete the following within the Practicing Digital Fluencytemplate then upload to Waypoint for grading.

### Prof. Nursing Leadership week 7 peers resp Peer Response Instructions In your response, provide feedback to your peers as to the approach they use

Prof. Nursing Leadership week 7 peers resp Peer Response Instructions In your response, provide feedback to your peers as to the approach they used and suggest an alternate approach. Posted at least two substantial responses to peers that drives the discussion forward. Substantial responses successfully show: evidence of accurately interpreting

### CASE STUDY ANALYSIS An understanding of the musculoskeletal systems is a critically important component of disease and disorder diagnosis and

CASE STUDY ANALYSIS An understanding of the musculoskeletal systems is a critically important component of disease and disorder diagnosis and treatment. This importance is magnified by the impact that that this system may have on another. A variety of factors and circumstances affecting the emergence and severity of issues in

### please see attached NRNP/PRAC 6635 Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Template Week (enter week #): (Enter

please see attached NRNP/PRAC 6635 Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Template Week (enter week #): (Enter assignment title) Student Name College of Nursing-PMHNP, Walden University NRNP 6635: Psychopathology and Diagnostic Reasoning Faculty Name Assignment Due Date Subjective: CC (chief complaint): HPI: Past Psychiatric History: · General Statement: · Caregivers (if applicable): ·

### Patient Teaching Infographic Assignment Purpose The purpose of this assignment is for students to explore the over-the-counter options to manage

Patient Teaching Infographic Assignment Purpose The purpose of this assignment is for students to explore the over-the-counter options to manage constipation. Course Outcomes This assignment enables the student to meet the following course outcomes: · CO 1: Identify the most commonly prescribed agents in the major drug classes. (POs 1,

### Paper instructions: The constant change in the health care delivery system requires nurses to be flexible in their roles. Flexibility is the key

Paper instructions: The constant change in the health care delivery system requires nurses to be flexible in their roles. Flexibility is the key to success during periods of change. Professional nurses need to open themselves up to various ideas to arrive at a perspective of health care that enhances nursing

### Develop a presentation for nursing colleagues highlighting the fundamental principles of care coordination. Include community resources, ethical

Develop a presentation for nursing colleagues highlighting the fundamental principles of care coordination. Include community resources, ethical issues, and policy issues that affect the coordination of care. To prepare, develop a detailed narrative script for your presentation, approximately 3-4 pages in length This assessment provides an opportunity for you to

### Final Care Coordination Plan For this assessment, you will evaluate the preliminary care coordination plan you developed

Final Care Coordination Plan For this assessment, you will evaluate the preliminary care coordination plan you developed initially using best practices found in the literature. Build on the preliminary plan document you created initially. Your final plan should be a scholarly APA-formatted paper, 3-4 pages in length, not including title

### For this assessment, you will develop a 2-3 pages preliminary care coordination plan for a selected health care problem. Include physical,

For this assessment, you will develop a 2-3 pages preliminary care coordination plan for a selected health care problem. Include physical, psychosocial, and cultural considerations for this health care problem. Identify and list available community resources for a safe and effective continuum of care. · First select one of the

### You may have considerable practice with this interview question, either as an interviewer or interviewee. There are numerous websites that offer

You may have considerable practice with this interview question, either as an interviewer or interviewee. There are numerous websites that offer insight as to the best way to respond to this question and just as many websites encouraging interviewers to remove this question from their repertoire. Despite its use